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Dictionary of concepts

Liability – an entitlement which a creditor has with regard to a debtor to demand fulfilment of a provision from a specific relationship of obligations, consisting of one or many claims (debts)

Debt recovery – the assertion of a liability (debt) with the aid of means defined in legal articles in force, divided into such stages as amicable debt recovery, judicial debt recovery and debt collection

Debt – an unfulfilled obligation for provision (most often pecuniary) by a debtor towards a creditor

Creditor – a person who may demand the fulfillment of a provision from another person (a debtor), with whom the person is linked by a relationship of obligation, the obligation consisting in the fact that the creditor may demand from the debtor the provision, while the debtor should fulfill the provision, the obligation being described from the position of the debtor as a debt, and from that of the creditor as a liability

Warrant for payment – a court ruling issued at a closed session without the participation of the parties, on the basis of the content of the claim and enclosed documents, one deciding the legitimacy of the claim asserted by the petitioner

Statute of limitations – a possibility that the fulfillment of a claim is evaded with the passage of a period of time defined by law, depriving of effective protection the creditor, who as a result of the passage of time is not able to prove the liability

Bankruptcy – proceedings initiated in the event of the insolvency of the debtor, consisting chiefly in a joint assertion of claims by all of the creditors, the so-called universal enforcement conducted on behalf of all of the creditors of the debtor, from all elements of wealth simultaneously

National Debt Register – an organisation with tasks which include the collection, storage and presentation of information on debtors, banking institutions and bodies of the civil service, with its formation being driven by the desire to limit payment gridlock phenomena harmful to the economy

Arbitration proceedings – a process consisting in the sending of a reminder to a debtor in order to bring about the payment of an amount due, divided into so-called remote debt recovery (telephone, letter) and personal (meetings with a debtor, mediation between a debtor and creditor)

Judicial proceedings – a process relating to cases in which there is a lack of readiness to cooperate on the part of the debtor, leading to the acquisition of a judicial verdict or warrant for payment, which supplemented with an enforcement notice is the basis for the initiation of debt collection

Enforcement proceedings – a process in administrative proceedings, following the acquisition of a legally binding court ruling, aimed at exacting a pecuniary amount which is due and established in the final decision of the court

European Enforcement Order (EEO) – an executory order applied in the event of the assertion of financial claims from debtors of countries being members of the EU, introduced with the aim of limiting the formalities and time necessary for the undertaking of debt collection in the country of the debtor seat – in a European Union member state

Court of Arbitration – a judicial body for the resolution of legal disputes, including economic cases, without the participation of the court of general jurisdiction, at which the competences of this court are entrusted to an impartial specialist, the Arbitrator; in order that a dispute may be decided by a court of arbitration, the creditor and debtor must express consent for this through the conclusion of an agreement on arbitration or a clause in an agreement which links the parties

Economic report / commercial report / credit reference agency – the acquisition of data on an economic entity being examined, aimed at investigating and presenting actual financial and material situation

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